In this tutorial you will learn about the Rust Features and its application with practical example.
Rust is a systems programming language that provides lots of convenient features mainly focused on safety, memory management, and concurrency.
Syntax :- Rust syntactically similar to C and C++ which makes it easy to learn system programming language. It supports a mix of imperative procedural, pure functional and object-oriented programming paradigms.
Zero Cost Abstraction :- This makes the Rust good fit for systems programming, it supports a higher level of abstraction without any performance overhead.
Type Inference :- Rust is a type inferred language, which allows compiler automatically infer(know) the type of an expression automatically.
Pattern Matching :- Rust comes with more powerful pattern matching features in conjunction with the match expressions. Pattern matching is very common in Rust, and can be used for variable bindings, match statements, and various other places in Rust program.
Package Manager :- Rust comes with a built-in Package Manager known as Cargo. Cargo is used to download project’s dependencies, compiles your project, makes packages, and upload them to Cargo repository.
Minimal Run Time :- Rust is a language that, that has very minimal runtime. Unlike other modern languages Rust guarantees memory safety, memory management, speed, and concurrency at compile time, hence there is no run-time overhead.
Safe Memory Allocation :- Rust provides memory safety without needing a garbage collector, it uses concept of smart pointers that keeps track memory allocation and clean up.
Ownership :-This is one of Rust’s most unique feature through which Rust achieves all of these memory safety guarantees. In Rust memory is managed through a system of ownership where a set of rules being enforced by the compiler at compile time. In ownership system memory space have a unique owner at a time and its reference can only be temporarily borrowed by the other variables.
Better Error Handling :- Rust comes with much better approach for error handling. In Rust errors are categorized into two major categories: recoverable errors and unrecoverable errors. In Rust, errors and their causes can be communicated in much more clean way.
Concurrency without data races :- Data races usually occurs in multi-threaded programming, where two or more threads in a single process accessing same memory location concurrently. Rust guarantees concurrency with no data races with a system of ownership. In ownership system memory space can be owned by a single thread at a time and its reference can only be temporarily borrowed by the other threads, and two threads can never own the same memory space with write access.
Efficient C bindings :- Rust strives to be interoperable with the existing world just as easily as it talks to itself. Rust makes it easy to communicate with C language without any performance overhead. Rust provides a zero-cost abstraction mechanism known as foreign function interface (FFI). The foreign function interface (FFI) enables function calls between Rust and C have seamless performance as of C function calls itself.
Reusable Code :- Modules are one of the basic building blocks in Rust Programming, Rust allows you to organize code in reusable modules. Rust modules are simply independent, reusable code block which usually contains functions, structures, and even other modules. Modules are organized code as a package that others can use.