In this tutorial you will learn about the Python Operators and its application with practical example.
In Python programming, an operator is a special symbol that is used to carry out some specific operation on its operand. In Python, we have rich set of built in operators to carry out different type of operations. There are operators for assignment, arithmetic operations, logical operations and comparison operations etc. Python operators can be used with many types of variables or constants, but some of the operators are restricted to work on specific data types. Most operators are binary, meaning they take two operands, but a few are unary and only take one operand.
Type of operators in Python
Python supports the following types of operators –
- Arithmetic Operators
- Assignment Operators
- Comparison (Relational) Operators
- Logical Operators
- Identity Operators
- Bitwise Operators
- Membership Operators
Arithmetic Operators In Python
Arithmetic Operators are used to perform arithmetic operations like addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, %modulus, exponent, etc. For example assume a=5 and b=10, then –
|+||Addition||It perform the addition of both the operands.||a + b = 15|
|–||Subtraction||It subtract right operand from the left||a – b = -5|
|*||Multiplication||It performs the multiplication of the given operands||a * b = 50|
|/||Division||It performs the division of the left operand by the right operand||b / a = 2|
|%||Modulus||It returns the remainder of the division of left operand by the right||b % a = 0(remainder of b/a)|
|//||Floor Division||It performs the division of operands where it returns the quotient in which the digits after the decimal point are removed.||15 // 4 = 3, 19//5=3|
|**||Exponent||Left operand raised to the power of right||a**b = (a to the power b), 3**4=81|
Assignment Operators In Python
Assignment operators are used to assign value to a variable, you can assign a variable value or the result of an arithmetical expression.
|=||Assignment||Used to assigns a value to variable(s).||c = a + b assigns value of a + b into c|
|+=||Add and assign||It is shorthand to add right operand to the left operand and assign the result to left operand||c += a is equivalent to c = c + a|
|-=||Subtract and assign||It is shorthand to subtracts right operand from the left operand and assign the result to left operand||c -= a is equivalent to c = c – a|
|*=||Multiply and assign||It is shorthand to multiply right operand with the left operand and assign the result to left operand||c *= a is equivalent to c = c * a|
|/=||Divide and assign||It is shorthand to divide left operand with the right operand and assign the result to left operand||c /= a is equivalent to c = c / ac /= a is equivalent to c = c / a|
|%=||Modulus and assign||It is shorthand to take modulus using two operands and assign the result to left operand||c %= a is equivalent to c = c % a|
|**=||Exponent and assign||It is shorthand to perform exponential (power) calculation on operators and assign value to the left operand||c **= a is equivalent to c = c ** a|
|//=||Floor Division and assign||It is shorthand to performs floor division on operators and assign value to the left operand||c //= a is equivalent to c = c // a|
Comparison (Relational) Operators In Python
Comparison Operators are used evaluate a comparison between two operands. The result of a comparison operation is a Boolean value that can only be true or false. Comparison Operators are also referred as relational operators.
Here is full list of Relational operators available in Python Programming Language –
|==||Equal to||a == b||1 if a equal to b; 0 otherwise|
|!=||Not equal to||a != b||1 if a not equal to b; 0 otherwise|
|>||greater than||a > b||1 if a > b; 0 otherwise|
|<||less than||a < b||1 if a < b; 0 otherwise|
|>=||greater than or equal to||a >= b||1 if a >= b; 0 otherwise|
|<=||less than or equal to||a <= b||1 if a <= b; 0 otherwise|
Logical Operators In Python
Logical operators are used to combine expressions with conditional statements using logical (AND,OR,NOT) operators, which results in true or false.
There are 3 logical operators available in Python Programming Language
|and||Logical AND||a and b||Logical AND of a and b|
|or||Logical OR||a or b||Logical OR of a and b|
|not||Logical NOT||not a||Logical NOT of a|
Identity Operators In Python
Identity Operators are used to compare the memory location of two objects.
There are two identify operators available in Python (is, is not).
|is||Name||It returns True if both the operands are identical and refers to the same object||x is True|
|is not||Name||It returns True if both the operands are not identical or they refer to different objects||x is not True|
Bitwise Operators In Python
Bitwise operator are used to perform bit level operation over its operand.
Let A = 60; and B = 13;
A = 0011 1100
B = 0000 1101
|&||Binary AND||(A & B)||It returns 12 which is 0000 1100|
||||Binary OR||(A | B)||It returns 12 which is 0000 1100|
|^||Binary XOR||(A ^ B)||It returns 49 which is 0011 0001|
|~||Ones Complement||(~A )||It returns -60 which is 1100 0011|
|<<||shift left||A << 2||It returns 240 which is 1111 0000|
|>>||shift right||A >> 2||It returns 15 which is 0000 1111|
Membership Operators In Python
Membership operators are used to test membership in a sequence, such as strings, lists, or tuples.
There are two membership operators available in python.
|in||Name||It returns True if value/variable is found in the given sequence, FALSE otherwise||5 in x|
|not in||Name||It returns True if value/variable is not found in the given sequence, FALSE otherwise||5 not in x|
Python Operators Precedence
Highest precedence at top, lowest at bottom.
Operators in the same box evaluate left to right.
|+x, -x, ~x||Unary plus, Unary minus, Bitwise NOT|
|*, /, //, %||Multiplication, Division, Floor division, Modulus|
|+, –||Addition, Subtraction|
|<<, >>||Bitwise shift operators|
|==, !=, >, >=, <, <=, is, is not, in, not in||Comparisions, Identity, Membership operators|